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Bemidji.

Bemidji Crude-Oil Project

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Background Information

Fact sheet describing results from the Bemidji Toxics project.

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Ground-water contamination by toxic organic, petroleum-based liquids is a widespread problem. These liquids may enter the subsurface as a consequence of spills on the land surface, leakage from underground storage and disposal containers, and other discharges. The volume of the subsurface contaminated may be larger than the original volume of the organic liquid source because of dissolution and transport by ground water, and vapor phase movement through the unsaturated zone. Most organic liquids are subject to some attenuation by chemical and biological transformations; some are degraded completely by microbial processes and others can persist in the environment indefinitely. A better understanding of the behavior of organic liquids in the subsurface is needed to design effective remedial action at contaminated sites.

On August 20, 1979 approximately 16 kilometers northwest of Bemidji, Minnesota, the land surface and shallow subsurface were contaminated when a crude-oil pipeline burst, spilling 1,700,000 L (liters) of crude oil onto a glacial outwash aquifer (fig. 1). After cleanup efforts were completed 400,000 L of crude oil remained. The site was selected for study by the Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology of the U.S. Geological Survey in 1982. Research began at the site in 1983. Characteristics of the site that make it suitable for long-term, interdisciplinary study include the following: (1) the introduction of a source of uniform composition at a known place and time, (2) the absence of other sources of contaminants, (3) a simple hydrogeologic setting that is susceptible to ground-water contamination and is representative of many other toxic waste sites, (4) the presence of three fluid phases (oil, water, and air), (5) the low potential for harmful effects to humans owing to the remoteness of the area and the sparse population, (6) the absence of human- induced hydraulic stresses such as pumping wells and irrigation, and (7) the low toxicity of crude oil compared to other hazardous wastes.

Purpose and Scope

Research is conducted by a coordinated effort of researchers from the National Research Program (NRP), Districts of the Water Resources Division (WRD), and Geologic Division (GD) of the USGS, and several academic institutions. The scope of the project was to obtain a more detailed understanding of the mobilization, transport, and fate of petroleum in both the saturated and unsaturated zones, to better understand the physical, chemical, and biological processes that control contaminant behavior, and to use this understanding to estimate the future behavior of the contaminants. This understanding will benefit efforts to design remediation at other sites with similar problems.

Description of the Site

The oil spill occurred in the recharge area of a local flow system that discharges to a small lake 400 m (meters) downgradient from the pipeline. The land surface is formed by pitted and dissected glacial outwash that is 5 to 10 m thick and underlain by other stratified glacial deposits that differ considerably in texture and origin. At a depth of about 25 m, a regionally persistent and uniform till occurs. The water table ranges from near land surface to about 11 m below the land surface (Smith and Hult, 1993). Two hundred and forty-six wells and test holes have been installed at the Bemidji Research site. Crude oil, water, soil, and vapor samples have been collected and analyzed.

History of Investigations

Field work by the U.S. Geological Survey began in May, 1983, approximately four years after the spill occurred. Information about the spill was obtained from the Pipeline Company and the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. Data collected immediately after the spill (August through September, 1979) were compiled and interpreted by Pfannkuch (1979) and summarized by Hult (1984b).

Some of the crude oil infiltrated the ground and percolated to the water table. Some petroleum compounds and degradation products have been dissolved by ground water and transported downgradient. Volatile constituents have diffused through the unsaturated zone. By 1992, liquid petroleum had moved as a separate fluid phase about 30 m in the direction of ground-water flow, constituents dissolved in the ground water had moved at least 200 m, and vapors in the unsaturated zone had moved horizontally about 100 m (Hult, 1991).

Spatial differences in the physical properties and composition of the oil have developed owing to alteration of the originally uniform source. The oil is selectively losing soluble and volatile compounds through dissolution and vaporization. Annual oil-mass loss rates of the crude oil source at different locations range from 0 to 1.25 percent and total accumulated losses from the original oil mass are as much as 11 percent (Landon and Hult, 1991). Most of the petroleum derivatives moving as solutes and vapors are being degraded by biologically mediated processes to carbon dioxide, water, and methane (Baedecker and Cozzarelli, 1991). The aquifer is being altered through dissolution and redeposition of silicate materials (Bennett, 1989).

The U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program has held five technical meetings since 1984 with plenary sessions at which the status of research at the site was summarized. Results of the project have been published in proceedings of these technical meetings (Hult, 1984a; Franks, 1987; Ragone, 1988; Mallard and Ragone, 1989; Mallard and Aronson, 1991; Morganwalp and Aronson, in press), in proceedings of other conferences, and in scientific journals. Smith and Hult (1993) present location and altitude data for selected features at the research site, water and oil level records from selected observation wells, and geologic information from 45 test holes collected from 1983 through 1991.

Composition of the Oil

Elemental and stable isotope composition. Two oil samples from wells 301 and 315 were examined for elemental composition. In general, the major element compositions (C, H, S, O, N) of these two samples were quite similar. The concentration of S (0.56%) is typical of low-S crude oils which characteristically contain <1% of this element by weight (Tissot and Welte, 1984). Nitrogen content is ~0.28%, indicating that the Bemidji oil is near the boundary between oils classified as N-poor and N-rich (~0.25%: Tissot and Welte, 1984). Vanadium and Ni Concentrations were in the microgram per gram range and the V/(Ni + V) ratio was 0.45. These properties are typical of low-S crude oils (Lewan, 1984; Tissot and Welte, 1984). The reduced abundance of metals in these oils is consistent with the fact that resins and asphaltenes, fractions in which inorganic species tend to concentrate are relatively minor components (see below). The stable C isotope ratios of the two oil samples differ by only 0.015% (well 301: -2.840%; well 315: -2.855%) and fall within the range observed for crude oils (-2.5 to -3.2%: Fuex, 1977; Sofer, 1984).

Molecular composition. In 1987 oil was collected from the approximate center of the oil body (wells, 421 and 301) and at its leading (well 534) and trailing (well 604) edges. Despite the fact that the four oils were obtained from different areas of the oil body at locations spanning its complete length along one axis, their molecular compositions were essentially identical. Moreover, the detailed composition of an oil sample obtained from the pipeline company after the spill was indistinguishable from that of the four oil samples taken from the oil body. The crude oil is dominated by saturated hydrocarbons (58-61%), with aromatics representing most of the remainder (33-36% of total oil). Resins, which include N-, S- and O-containing (i.e. NSO) species, comprise ~4-6% of the total, whereas asphaltenes are only a minor component (1-2%). These distributions are typical of normal crude oils, and according to the classification scheme outlined by Tissot and Welte (1984), the Bemidji oil would be designated as either a paraffinic or paraffinic-napthenic crude oil.

The dominant hydrocarbons are normal alkanes (C6-32). These compounds occur as an homologous series with the higher molecular weight species (i.e. >C10) maximizing at either n-C14 or n-C15 and exhibiting little or no odd-even chain length predominance (Baedecker et al., 1984). The second most abundant class of hydrocarbons is the regular acyclic isoprenoids (i.e. C10, C11, C13-16, C18-21). The C19 isoprenoid, pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane), is the most prominent member. Most of the alicyclic hydrocarbons are chromatographically unresolved using the conditions described here. However, cyclohexane and a series of n-alkyl substituted cyclohexanes occur in minor amounts (C2-20-cyclohexanes). Tetracyclic steranes, tricyclic diterpanes and pentacyclic triterpanes (commonly found in crude oils and ancient sediments), if present, were not detected under the analytical conditions used.

The majority of the aromatic hydrocarbons are observed on gas chromatograms as an unresolved complex mixture (Baedecker et al., 1984). However, benzene + C1-5 alkylated benzenes are important constituents of the crude oil, and naphthalene + C1-6 alkylated homologs and phenanthrene + C1-5 alkylated homologs are the most abundant resolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In the latter two series, the monomethyl species dominate the alkyl homolog distributions, a patter typically observed for crude oils (Youngblood and Blumer, 1975) No sulfur heterocyclic compounds (.e. benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene + alkylated homologs) were found in the Bemidji oil samples despite the fact that alkylated thiophenes were identified in contaminated groundwater near the oil body using purge-and-trap HRGC/MS. The high aqueous solubilities of these heteroatomic molecules (Price, 1976) may account for this apparent discrepancy.

Thorn and Aiken (1989) and Thorn (1987 pers. commun.) have shown that crude oil samples collected in 1987 from wells 301, 421, 534, and 604 exhibit quantitative liquid phase 13C-NMR spectra that are identical. The oils show strong absorption peaks in the 0-60 ppm (aliphatic) region and lesser peaks at 100-160 ppm (aromatic). The integrated peak area corresponding to aliphatic carbons represents 83% of the total with aromatic carbons being 17%. Distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer NMR spectra for the Bemidji crude oil demonstrates that methylene carbons exceed in abundance either the methine (indicative of branching) or methylcarbons. This is to be expected given the high abundance of normal and isoprenoid hydrocarbons revealed by HRGC/MS.

Processes affecting the fate of monoaromatic hydrocarbons

Crude oil spilled from a subsurface pipeline in north central Minnesota has dissolved in the groundwater, resulting in the formation of a plume of aliphateic, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons. Comparison of paired oil and groundwater samples collected along the central axis of the residual oil body shows that the trailing edge of the oil is depleted in the more soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene, toluene, etc.) when compared with the leading edge. At the same time, concentrations of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in groundwater beneath the oil increase as the water moves toward the leading edge of the oil. Immediately downgradient from the leading edge of the oil body, certain aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzene) are found at concentrations near those expected of a system at equilibrium, and the concentrations exhibit little variation over time (approximately 8-20%). The former are persistent within the anoxic zone downgradient from the oil, whereas concentrations of the latter decrease rapidly. Together, these observations suggest that the volatile hydrocarbon composition of the anoxic groundwater near the oil body is controlled by a balance between dissolution and removal rates with only the most persistent compounds reaching saturation. Examination of the distributions of homologous series and isomeric assemblages of alkylbenzenes reveals that microbial degradation is the dominant process controlling the fate of these compounds once groundwater moves away from the oil. For all but the most persistent compounds, the distal boundary of the plume at the water table extends no more than 10-15 m downgradient from the oxic/anoxic transition zone. Thus, transport of the monaromatic hydrocarbons is limited by redox conditions that are tightly coupled to biological degradations processes.

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05087500: Flow=134cfs,Stage=5.30ft,2014-10-24 08:00,High,MIDDLE RIVER AT ARGYLE, MN 05385500: Flow=189cfs,Stage=1.69ft,2014-10-24 07:30,>90,SOUTH FORK ROOT RIVER NEAR HOUSTON, MN 05385000: Flow=881cfs,Stage=3.84ft,Floodstage=15ft,2014-10-24 07:45,>90,ROOT RIVER NEAR HOUSTON, MN 05311000: Flow=848cfs,Stage=4.80ft,Floodstage=14ft,2014-10-24 08:00,>90,MINNESOTA RIVER AT MONTEVIDEO, MN 05076000: Flow=345cfs,Stage=5.96ft,2014-10-24 07:45,>90,THIEF RIVER NEAR THIEF RIVER FALLS, MN 05054000: Flow=832cfs,Stage=14.93ft,Floodstage=18ft,2014-10-24 08:15,>90,RED RIVER OF THE NORTH AT FARGO, ND 05046000: Flow=857cfs,Stage=3.59ft,2014-10-24 07:30,>90,OTTER TAIL RIVER BL ORWELL D NR FERGUS FALLS, MN 05388250: Flow=643cfs,Stage=7.83ft,Floodstage=14ft,2014-10-24 08:00,76-90,Upper Iowa River near Dorchester, IA 05333500: Flow=1590cfs,Stage=1.77ft,2014-10-24 07:45,76-90,ST. CROIX RIVER NEAR DANBURY, WI 05313500: Flow=74cfs,Stage=3.00ft,2014-10-24 07:45,76-90,YELLOW MEDICINE RIVER NEAR GRANITE FALLS, MN 05304500: Flow=376cfs,Stage=1.96ft,2014-10-24 07:30,76-90,CHIPPEWA RIVER NEAR MILAN, MN 05301000: Flow=664cfs,Stage=22.71ft,2014-10-24 07:00,76-90,MINNESOTA RIVER NEAR LAC QUI PARLE, MN 05294000: Flow=155cfs,Stage=4.95ft,2014-10-24 07:45,76-90,POMME DE TERRE RIVER AT APPLETON, MN 05291000: Flow=22cfs,Stage=1.38ft,2014-10-24 07:45,76-90,WHETSTONE RIVER NEAR BIG STONE CITY, SD 05286000: Flow=685cfs,Stage=3.43ft,2014-10-24 08:15,76-90,RUM RIVER NEAR ST. FRANCIS, MN 05245100: Flow=202cfs,Stage=3.26ft,Floodstage=7ft,2014-10-24 08:15,76-90,LONG PRAIRIE RIVER AT LONG PRAIRIE, MN 05082500: Flow=2820cfs,Stage=16.98ft,Floodstage=28ft,2014-10-24 07:45,76-90,RED RIVER OF THE NORTH AT GRAND FORKS, ND 05064500: Flow=1910cfs,Stage=6.83ft,Floodstage=26ft,2014-10-24 07:30,76-90,RED RIVER OF THE NORTH AT HALSTAD, MN 05061500: Flow=59cfs,Stage=6.47ft,Floodstage=12ft,2014-10-24 07:45,76-90,SOUTH BRANCH BUFFALO RIVER AT SABIN, MN 05053000: Flow=29cfs,Stage=0.58ft,Floodstage=10ft,2014-10-24 08:15,76-90,WILD RICE RIVER NR ABERCROMBIE, ND 05051522: Flow=860cfs,Stage=11.82ft,Floodstage=30ft,2014-10-24 07:45,76-90,RED RIVER OF THE NORTH AT HICKSON, ND 05287890: Flow=2.8cfs,Stage=3.52ft,2014-10-24 07:30,10-24,ELM CREEK NR CHAMPLIN, MN 05244000: Flow=284cfs,Stage=2.86ft,2014-10-24 08:00,10-24,CROW WING RIVER AT NIMROD, MN 05131500: Flow=183cfs,Stage=2.60ft,2014-10-24 07:30,10-24,LITTLE FORK RIVER AT LITTLEFORK, MN 05129115: Flow=117cfs,Stage=4.58ft,2014-10-24 07:30,10-24,VERMILION RIVER NR CRANE LAKE, MN 05078000: Flow=44cfs,Stage=2.61ft,2014-10-24 08:15,10-24,CLEARWATER RIVER AT PLUMMER, MN 04024000: Flow=714cfs,Stage=2.87ft,Floodstage=10.5ft,2014-10-24 07:30,10-24,ST. LOUIS RIVER AT SCANLON, MN 04015330: Flow=14cfs,Stage=2.18ft,2014-10-24 08:15,10-24,KNIFE RIVER NEAR TWO HARBORS, MN 06482610: Flow=30cfs,Stage=2.09ft,Floodstage=8.5ft,2014-10-24 07:45,25-75,SPLIT ROCK CR AT CORSON,SD 05476000: Flow=43cfs,Stage=3.49ft,Floodstage=12ft,2014-10-24 08:00,25-75,DES MOINES RIVER AT JACKSON, MN 05457000: Flow=115cfs,Stage=2.79ft,2014-10-24 08:00,25-75,CEDAR RIVER NEAR AUSTIN, MN 05372995: Flow=119cfs,Stage=2.75ft,Floodstage=14ft,2014-10-24 08:15,25-75,SOUTH FORK ZUMBRO RIVER AT ROCHESTER, MN 05353800: Flow=81cfs,Stage=3.92ft,2014-10-24 08:15,25-75,STRAIGHT RIVER NEAR FARIBAULT, MN 05345000: Flow=56cfs,Stage=2.81ft,2014-10-24 08:15,25-75,VERMILLION RIVER NEAR EMPIRE, MN 05340500: Flow=3970cfs,Stage=3.75ft,2014-10-24 07:15,25-75,ST. CROIX RIVER AT ST. CROIX FALLS, WI 05338500: Flow=373cfs,Stage=3.44ft,Floodstage=9ft,2014-10-24 08:15,25-75,SNAKE RIVER NEAR PINE CITY, MN 05336700: Flow=315cfs,Stage=4.56ft,2014-10-24 07:45,25-75,KETTLE RIVER BELOW SANDSTONE, MN 05330000: Flow=1710cfs,2014-10-24 07:45,Stage=5.51ft,2014-10-24 08:15:00,Floodstage=25ft,25-75,MINNESOTA RIVER NEAR JORDAN, MN 05327000: Flow=6.7cfs,Stage=2.92ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,HIGH ISLAND CREEK NEAR HENDERSON, MN 05320500: Flow=44cfs,Stage=1.47ft,2014-10-24 08:00,25-75,LE SUEUR RIVER NEAR RAPIDAN, MN 05320000: Flow=145cfs,Stage=1.62ft,2014-10-24 07:45,25-75,BLUE EARTH RIVER NEAR RAPIDAN, MN 05319500: Flow=31cfs,Stage=0.69ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,WATONWAN RIVER NEAR GARDEN CITY, MN 05317000: Flow=59cfs,Stage=2.83ft,Floodstage=11ft,2014-10-24 08:00,25-75,COTTONWOOD RIVER NEAR NEW ULM, MN 05316500: Flow=25cfs,Stage=1.70ft,Floodstage=6ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,REDWOOD RIVER NEAR REDWOOD FALLS, MN 05315000: Flow=11cfs,Stage=6.79ft,2014-10-24 07:45,25-75,REDWOOD RIVER NEAR MARSHALL, MN 05300000: Flow=38cfs,Stage=5.35ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,LAC QUI PARLE RIVER NEAR LAC QUI PARLE, MN 05293000: Flow=18cfs,Stage=1.47ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,YELLOW BANK RIVER NEAR ODESSA, MN 05290000: Flow=4.6cfs,Stage=10.09ft,Floodstage=17ft,2014-10-24 07:45,25-75,LITTLE MINNESOTA RIVER NEAR PEEVER, SD 05288500: Flow=7380cfs,Stage=3.61ft,2014-10-24 08:00,25-75,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT HWY 610 IN BROOKLYN PARK, MN 05280000: Flow=373cfs,Stage=2.34ft,Floodstage=10ft,2014-10-24 07:45,25-75,CROW RIVER AT ROCKFORD, MN 05275000: Flow=219cfs,Stage=1.43ft,2014-10-24 08:15,25-75,ELK RIVER NEAR BIG LAKE, MN 05270500: Flow=270cfs,Stage=1.89ft,Floodstage=6ft,2014-10-24 08:15,25-75,SAUK RIVER NEAR ST. CLOUD, MN 05267000: Flow=4740cfs,Stage=9.70ft,2014-10-24 08:15,25-75,MISSISSIPPI RIVER NEAR ROYALTON, MN 05247500: Flow=1430cfs,Stage=4.12ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,CROW WING RIVER NEAR PILLAGER, MN 05227500: Flow=2440cfs,Stage=6.48ft,Floodstage=12ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT AITKIN, MN 05211000: Flow=1650cfs,Stage=5.48ft,2014-10-24 08:00,25-75,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT GRAND RAPIDS, MN 05134200: Flow=109cfs,Stage=2.99ft,2014-10-24 08:15,25-75,RAPID RIVER NEAR BAUDETTE, MN 05133500: Flow=7430cfs,Stage=3.96ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,RAINY RIVER AT MANITOU RAPIDS, MN 05132000: Flow=425cfs,Stage=3.66ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,BIG FORK RIVER AT BIG FALLS, MN 05127500: Flow=462cfs,Stage=2.75ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,BASSWOOD RIVER NEAR WINTON, MN 05112000: Flow=190cfs,Stage=3.09ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,ROSEAU RIVER BELOW STATE DITCH 51 NR CARIBOU, MN 05107500: Flow=119cfs,Stage=3.24ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,ROSEAU RIVER AT ROSS, MN 05106000: Flow=28cfs,Stage=3.11ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,SPRAGUE CREEK NEAR SPRAGUE, MANITOBA, CANADA 05104500: Flow=77cfs,Stage=5.08ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,ROSEAU RIVER BELOW SOUTH FORK NEAR MALUNG, MN 05092000: Flow=3480cfs,Stage=13.10ft,Floodstage=32ft,2014-10-24 07:45,25-75,RED RIVER OF THE NORTH AT DRAYTON, ND 05079000: Flow=1190cfs,Stage=6.23ft,Floodstage=15ft,2014-10-24 07:45,25-75,RED LAKE RIVER AT CROOKSTON, MN 05078500: Flow=77cfs,Stage=1.97ft,2014-10-24 07:45,25-75,CLEARWATER RIVER AT RED LAKE FALLS, MN 05078230: Flow=14cfs,Stage=4.05ft,2014-10-24 08:30,25-75,LOST RIVER AT OKLEE, MN 05074500: Flow=492cfs,Stage=71.88ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,RED LAKE RIVER NEAR RED LAKE, MN 05069000: Flow=26cfs,Stage=4.30ft,Floodstage=20ft,2014-10-24 07:45,25-75,SAND HILL RIVER AT CLIMAX, MN 05064000: Flow=108cfs,Stage=4.60ft,Floodstage=20ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,WILD RICE RIVER AT HENDRUM, MN 05062500: Flow=89cfs,Stage=2.29ft,Floodstage=10ft,2014-10-24 07:45,25-75,WILD RICE RIVER AT TWIN VALLEY, MN 05062000: Flow=99cfs,Stage=4.45ft,Floodstage=12ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,BUFFALO RIVER NEAR DILWORTH, MN 05061000: Flow=35cfs,Stage=3.43ft,Floodstage=7ft,2014-10-24 07:45,25-75,BUFFALO RIVER NEAR HAWLEY, MN 05050000: Flow=6.6cfs,Stage=3.71ft,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,BOIS DE SIOUX RIVER NEAR WHITE ROCK, SD 04024430: Flow=121cfs,Stage=4.54ft,2014-10-24 08:15,25-75,NEMADJI RIVER NEAR SOUTH SUPERIOR, WI 04010500: Flow=205cfs,2014-10-24 07:30,25-75,PIGEON RIVER AT MIDDLE FALLS NR GRAND PORTAGE MN 470532096490400: Stage=858.19ft,2013-05-21 23:45,Not ranked,RED RIVER (STAGE GAGE 2011) NEAR GEORGETOWN, MN 465655096461600: Flow=38cfs,Stage=24.44ft,2013-05-04 23:45,Not ranked,OAKPORT COULEE AT 70TH AVE NR OAKPORT, MN 464646092052900: Stage=602.97ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,SUPERIOR BAY DULUTH SHIP CANAL AT DULUTH, MN 464129096453101: Flow=60cfs,Stage=15.50ft,2013-05-21 23:50,Not ranked,WOLVERTON CREEK NEAR COMSTOCK, MN 462622096404600: Flow=35cfs,Stage=15.10ft,2013-05-25 23:45,Not ranked,WHISKEY CREEK AT HWY 75 NR KENT, MN 06604000: Stage=13.78ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,Spirit Lake near Orleans, IA 06483290: Flow=75cfs,Stage=7.20ft,Floodstage=13ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,Rock River below Tom Creek at Rock Rapids, IA 05475350: Stage=11.37ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,DES MOINES RIVER ABOVE WINDOM, MN 05386400: Stage=30.66ft,2014-10-24 07:45,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT BROWNSVILLE, MN 05383950: Flow=355cfs,Stage=8.27ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,ROOT RIVER NEAR PILOT MOUND, MN 05383075: Flow=471cfs,Stage=3.49ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,LA CROSSE RIVER NEAR LA CROSSE, WI 05378500: Stage=5.49ft,Floodstage=13ft,2014-10-24 07:45,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT WINONA, MN 05374000: Stage=5.17ft,Floodstage=18ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,ZUMBRO RIVER AT ZUMBRO FALLS, MN 05355200: Flow=354cfs,Stage=3.66ft,2014-10-16 10:15,Not ranked,CANNON RIVER AT WELCH, MN 05355080: Stage=12.06ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,PRAIRIE CREEK NEAR CANNON FALLS, MN 05355038: Stage=5.26ft,2014-10-24 08:30,Not ranked,CHUB CREEK AT CO. HWY. 47 ABOVE RANDOLPH, MN 05355024: Flow=129cfs,Stage=889.63ft,2014-10-24 08:30,Not ranked,CANNON RIVER AT NORTHFIELD MN 05354500: Stage=9.36ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,CANNON RIVER AT CO. HWY. 29 BELOW FARIBAULT, MN 05344500: Stage=25.33ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,Very low value,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT PRESCOTT, WI 05344490: Flow=3800cfs,Stage=25.33ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,ST. CROIX RIVER AT PRESCOTT, WI 05342000: Flow=132cfs,Stage=10.59ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,KINNICKINNIC RIVER NEAR RIVER FALLS, WI 05341550: Stage=675.65ft,2014-10-24 08:15:00,Floodstage=87ft,Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,ST. CROIX RIVER AT STILLWATER, MN 05331580: Flow=10900cfs,2014-10-24 07:15,Stage=7.28ft,2014-10-24 07:30:00,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER BELOW L&D #2 AT HASTINGS, MN 05331000: Flow=27900cfs,2014-07-21 22:45,Stage=3.50ft,2014-10-24 08:15:00,Floodstage=14ft,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT ST. PAUL, MN 05330920: Flow=1970cfs,Stage=687.11ft,2014-10-24 07:45,Not ranked,MINNESOTA RIVER AT FORT SNELLING STATE PARK, MN 05325000: Flow=1620cfs,Stage=3.88ft,Floodstage=22ft,2014-10-24 08:30,Not ranked,MINNESOTA RIVER AT MANKATO, MN 05317200: Stage=3.40ft,2014-10-24 08:15:00,Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,LITTLE COTTONWOOD RIVER NEAR COURTLAND, MN 05316580: Flow=1050cfs,Stage=9.93ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,MINNESOTA RIVER AT MORTON, MN 05311150: Flow=849cfs,Stage=881.49ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,MINNESOTA RIVER AT HWY 212 IN GRANITE FALLS, MN 05305000: Flow=179cfs,Stage=36.61ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,CHIPPEWA RIVER (TW) NEAR WATSON, MN 05304995: Stage=39.33ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,CHIPPEWA R. (HW) ABOVE COUNTY RD 13 NR WATSON, MN 05292000: Flow=57cfs,Stage=1.83ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,MINNESOTA RIVER AT ORTONVILLE, MN 05289800: Flow=36cfs,Stage=12.78ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,MINNEHAHA CREEK AT HIAWATHA AVE. IN MINNEAPOLIS,MN 05288705: Flow=3.5cfs,Stage=9.47ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,SHINGLE CREEK AT QUEEN AVE IN MINNEAPOLIS, MN 05288580: Flow=59cfs,Stage=7.74ft,2014-10-24 07:45,Not ranked,RICE CREEK BLW OLD HWY. 8 IN MOUNDS VIEW, MN 05284000: Stage=11.68ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,MILLE LACS LAKE AT COVE BAY NEAR ONAMIA, MN 05270700: Flow=5680cfs,Stage=5.26ft,Floodstage=9ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT ST. CLOUD, MN 05243725: Flow=66cfs,Stage=1.56ft,2014-10-24 08:30,Not ranked,STRAIGHT RIVER NEAR PARK RAPIDS, MN 05242300: Flow=3120cfs,Stage=6.59ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT BRAINERD, MN 05227530: Flow=106cfs,Stage=4.08ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER DIVERSION NEAR AITKIN, MN 05212700: Flow=74cfs,Stage=2.52ft,Floodstage=10ft,2014-10-24 07:45,Not ranked,PRAIRIE RIVER NEAR TACONITE, MN 05210000: Stage=74.65ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI R. AT DAYS HIGH LANDING NR DEER RIVER 05207600: Flow=1600cfs,Stage=8.55ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER AT WILLOW BEACH AT BALL CLUB, MN 05205900: Stage=94.44ft,2014-10-24 07:00,Not ranked,LEECH LAKE AT SUGAR POINT NEAR FEDERAL DAM, MN 05200510: Flow=161cfs,Stage=3.01ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,MISSISSIPPI RIVER NEAR BEMIDJI, MN 05140521: Stage=59.23ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,LK OF THE WOODS @ SPRINGSTEEL IS NR. WARROAD, MN 05140520: Stage=59.23ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,LAKE OF THE WOODS AT WARROAD, MN 05137500: Stage=4.94ft,2014-10-24 08:00:00,Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,RAINY RIVER NEAR BOAT LANDING AT WHEELERS POINT,MN 05129515: Stage=14.97ft,2014-10-24 08:30:00,Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,RAINY R AT BOAT LANDING BLW INTERNATIONAL FALLS,MN 05129290: Flow=375cfs,Stage=16.68ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,GOLD PORTAGE OUTLET FROM KABETOGAMA LK NR RAY,MN 05126210: Flow=207cfs,Stage=3.69ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,SOUTH KAWISHIWI R ABV WHITE IRON LAKE NR ELY, MN 05125039: Flow=0.65cfs,Stage=8.91ft,2014-10-24 07:45,Not ranked,KEELEY CREEK ABOVE MOUTH NEAR BABBITT, MN 05125000: Flow=186cfs,Stage=2.45ft,2014-10-24 08:30,Not ranked,SOUTH KAWISHIWI RIVER NEAR ELY, MN 05124982: Flow=0.75cfs,Stage=6.52ft,2014-10-24 07:45,Not ranked,FILSON CREEK IN SWSE SEC. 24, NEAR WINTON, MN 05124480: Flow=66cfs,Stage=3.10ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,KAWISHIWI RIVER NEAR ELY, MN 05102490: Stage=13.70ft,Floodstage=39ft,2014-10-24 08:30,Not ranked,RED RIVER OF THE NORTH AT PEMBINA, ND 05094000: Stage=3.60ft,2014-10-24 07:30:00,Floodstage=26ft,Not ranked,Temporarily unavailable,SOUTH BRANCH TWO RIVERS AT LAKE BRONSON, MN 05085450: Flow=20cfs,Stage=61.16ft,Floodstage=67ft,2014-10-24 07:45,Not ranked,SNAKE RIVER ABOVE WARREN, MN 05083500: Stage=8.91ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,RED RIVER OF THE NORTH AT OSLO, MN 05080000: Flow=1120cfs,Stage=12.95ft,2014-10-24 08:30,Not ranked,RED LAKE RIVER AT FISHER, MN 05079250: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=0.19ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,COUNTY DITCH 65 NEAR MAPLE BAY, MN (SW2) 05079200: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=1.34ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,COUNTY DITCH 72 (BURNHAM CK) NR. MAPLE BAY  (SW3) 05078770: Stage=1.14ft,2014-10-24 08:30:00,Not ranked,Rating being developed or revised,JUDICIAL DITCH 66 NEAR MARCOUX CORNERS, MN (SW6) 05078720: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=1.80ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,COUNTY DITCH 140 ABV BR-6 IMP NR TILDEN, MN (SW8) 05078520: Flow=0.38cfs,Stage=1.16ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,CYR CREEK NEAR MARCOUX CORNERS, MN (SW5) 05078470: Flow=0.11cfs,Stage=1.25ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,JUDICIAL DITCH 64 NEAR MENTOR, MN (SW4) 05075000: Stage=6.68ft,Floodstage=12ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,RED LAKE RIVER AT HIGH LANDING NR GOODRIDGE, MN 05074000: Stage=74.70ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,LOWER RED LAKE NR RED LAKE, MN 05073650: 2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,LOWER RED LAKE AT MOUTH BATTLE RIVER NR SAUM, MN 05073500: Stage=74.78ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,UPPER RED LAKE AT WASKISH, MN 05070000: Flow=1800cfs,Stage=19.05ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,RED RIVER OF THE NORTH NEAR THOMPSON, ND 05067500: Not ranked,Seasonal site,MARSH RIVER NEAR SHELLY, MN 05063398: Flow=12cfs,Stage=4.77ft,2014-10-24 07:45,Not ranked,S. BR. WILD RICE RIVER AT CO. RD. 27 NR FELTON, MN 05060400: Stage=72.32ft,Floodstage=884ft,2014-10-24 08:15,Not ranked,SHEYENNE RIVER AT HARWOOD, ND 05052500: Not ranked,Seasonal site,ANTELOPE CREEK AT DWIGHT, ND 05051500: Flow=845cfs,Stage=5.69ft,Floodstage=11ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,RED RIVER OF THE NORTH AT WAHPETON, ND 05051300: Flow=0.32cfs,Stage=6.21ft,2014-10-24 08:30,Not ranked,BOIS DE SIOUX RIVER NEAR DORAN, MN 05049995: Stage=71.82ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,MUD LAKE ABOVE WHITE ROCK DAM NEAR WHITE ROCK, SD 05049000: Stage=76.91ft,2014-10-24 07:30,Not ranked,MUSTINKA RIVER ABOVE WHEATON, MN 05046475: Flow=0.00cfs,Stage=3.80ft,2014-10-24 08:00,Not ranked,OTTER TAIL RIVER DIVERSION AT BRECKENRIDGE, MN 05030500: Flow=601cfs,Stage=6.74ft,2014-10-24 08:30,Not ranked,OTTER TAIL RIVER NEAR ELIZABETH, MN 04021520: Stage=2.87ft,2014-10-24 08:00:00,Not ranked,STONEY BROOK AT PINE DRIVE NEAR BROOKSTON, MN 04015438: Flow=8.2cfs,Stage=17.37ft,2014-10-24 07:45,Not ranked,ST. LOUIS RIVER NEAR SKIBO, MN Go to WaterWatch (offsite) for a larger map with additional options